The quake occurred along a fault line between the Indian tectonic plate and the Burma microplate, part of the Australian plate. The Indian plate is a heavy ocean plate, and it slipped under the lighter coastal plate, rupturing a 900-mile length of the fault.
What plates caused the 2004 earthquake?
The December 26, 2004 magnitude (M) 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake occurred along a tectonic subduction zone in which the India Plate, an oceanic plate, is being subducted beneath the Burma micro-plate, part of the larger Sunda plate.
Which plates caused Boxing Day tsunami?
On Sunday, December 26, 2004 The Boxing Day tsunami caused by the Indian plate going beneath the Burma plate would cause the deadliest in recorded history, taking around 230,000 lives in a matter of hours. USGS estimated the earthquake released the energy of 23,000 Hiroshima-type atomic bombs.
What caused the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake?
The earthquake was caused by a rupture along the fault between the Burma Plate and the Indian Plate. A series of massive tsunami waves grew up to 30 m (100 ft) high once heading inland, after being created by the underwater seismic activity offshore.
What caused the 2004 Boxing Day earthquake tsunami?
What caused the Boxing Day tsunami in the Indian Ocean? A magnitude 9.3 earthquake occurred on the seafloor off the western coast of Sumatra. It ruptured over a 1200km section of a fault under the sea, causing a huge area of the sea floor to be raised. It spread out as a tsunami.
Are tectonic plates?
Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth’s crust and uppermost mantle, together referred to as the lithosphere. The plates are around 100 km (62 mi) thick and consist of two principal types of material: oceanic crust (also called sima from silicon and magnesium) and continental crust (sial from silicon and aluminium).
Why do tectonic plates move?
The plates can be thought of like pieces of a cracked shell that rest on the hot, molten rock of Earth’s mantle and fit snugly against one another. The heat from radioactive processes within the planet’s interior causes the plates to move, sometimes toward and sometimes away from each other.
When did the Boxing Day tsunami occur?
On December 26 2004, waves triggered by a massive earthquake slammed into the coastlines of countries ringing the Indian Ocean. The death toll was enormous. Worldwide, it is estimated that about 230,000 people died that day. Aceh province, on the northern end of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, was hit hardest.
How did the government respond to the Boxing Day tsunami?
Immediately after the tsunami struck, the Australian Government activated its emergency response mechanisms and committed an initial $60 million in the first week for humanitarian assistance. Australia’s total humanitarian contribution was later boosted to $69.6 million: $34.4 million for Indonesia.
How long did the 2004 earthquake last?
The 2004 quake ruptured a 900-mile stretch along the Indian and Australian plates 31 miles below the ocean floor. Rather than delivering one violent jolt, the quake lasted an unrelenting 10 minutes, releasing as much pent-up power as several thousand atomic bombs.
What type of plate boundary created the movement that caused this earthquake?
Tectonic Plate Boundaries The Pacific Plate (on the west) slides horizontally northwestward relative to the North American Plate (on the east), causing earthquakes along the San Andreas and associated faults. The San Andreas fault is a transform plate boundary, accomodating horizontal relative motions.
What type of plate boundary and earthquake movement caused the 2004 tsunami?
On 26 December 2004 a tsunami occurred in the Indian Ocean. It was the result of the Indio-Australian Plate subducting below the Eurasian Plate. It was caused by an earthquake measuring more than magnitude 9. The earthquake caused the seafloor to uplift, displacing the seawater above.
How are tsunamis earthquakes and tectonic plate movement related?
One of the many tectonic plates that make up Earth’s outer shell descends, or “subducts,” under an adjacent plate. An earthquake along a subduction zone happens when the leading edge of the overriding plate breaks free and springs seaward, raising the sea floor and the water above it. This uplift starts a tsunami.
What effects did the Boxing Day tsunami have?
Through this source I learned that the direct impacts of the tsunami were damage to infrastructure such as utility lines, communication networks and transportation systems. While the indirect impacts were things such as the loss of tourism to Thailand and therefore a loss of income for many people who lived there.
What were the effects of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami?
Ten people were reported killed, and flooding destroyed a major bridge between the capital Port Victoria and main airport. Also, the island reported devastating economic loss in millions of dollars due to hotels, housing, public utilities, and fishing damages. More than 300 deaths were reported and 5,000 displaced.
Where did the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami happen?
The tsunami and its aftermath were responsible for immense destruction and loss on the rim of the Indian Ocean. On December 26, 2004, at 7:59 am local time, an undersea earthquake with a magnitude of 9.1 struck off the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.